Categories

## They Write the Right Stuff

This is a review of how software is written by the On-board Shuttle Group on Fast Company.

Given how pervasive software is in our everyday life, what the group achieves with the software that powers shuttle launches is absolutely amazing.

The software for shuttle launches must be as perfect as possible.

Lives are at stake and millions will be lost if anything goes wrong.

To achieve this, there process is designed to not rely on an one individual.

It is the synergy of individual efforts that guarantee the required level of perfection.

Sadly, the rest of the software engineering profession is devoid of this discipline.

I should know because I too used to be a cowboy coder.

But like the article says: “When you have to write perfect software instead of software that’s just good enough — then it’s time to grow up”.

Categories

## Aban

Aban means “fortress”. It is the symbol of strength and authority.

We will use the 5 pixel grid to trace out this image. The image of this is shown below:

## Analysing the Symbol

The symbol is a composite symbol made up of 4 symbols that look like tongs.

A single tong is symmetrical in its quadrant. This property means that we draw a tong and use the steps to draw others.

## The Plan to Draw the Symbol

We shall move the pen to the position (0, 80). Once we do this, we shall set the heading of the pen to 45 degrees thus drawing the tong in the upper right quadrant.

Once the drawing of the first tong is completed, the position of the turtle will place it on the x axis on the right.

At that point, we simply set the heading of the pen to 315 degrees and draw the second tong. When the second tong is drawn, the turtle will be on the negative y axis.

At this point, we simply set the heading of the pen to 225 degrees and draw the third tong. When the third tong is drawn, the turtle will be on the negative x axis.

At this point, we simple set the heading of the pen to 135 degrees and draw the fourth tong thus completing our shape.

## Algorithm to Draw the Symbol

The algorithm to draw the Aban symbol is shown below:

1. Lift up the pen
2. Set the heading to 45 degrees
3. Move the pen to the position (0, 80)
4. Set the pen size to half the width of the shape
5. Place the pen down
6. Move forward to draw the first line
7. Turn right by 90 degrees
8. Move forward to draw half of the first line
9. Turn left by 90 degrees
10. Move forward to draw the protruding line at a distance of 5/8 of the length
11. Lift up the pen
12. Reverse the turtle by moving back the same distance as you moved forward
13. Turn right by 90 degrees
14. Place the pen down
15. Draw the second half of the line
16. Turn right by 90 degrees
17. Move forward to draw the third line
18. Change the heading to 315 and repeat steps 6 – 17
19. Change the heading to 225 and repeat steps 6 – 17
20. Change the heading to 135 and repeat steps 6 – 17

## Using Turtle Graphics

We will use the template.py file and rename it to aban.py.

The code for steps 1 to 3 is given below:

turtle.penup()
turtle.setposition(0, 80)

In step 4 of the algorithm to draw Aban, we have to find the width of the shape. We will also need to find the length of the shape.

To find the width of the line, we need to find the distance between two parallel points it passes through and this are: (120, 0) and (40, 80).

To find the length of a side of the Aban symbol, we take the point (0, 80) as our starting point and get the coordinates of the centre point (80, 160) which is where a line drawing the symbol would stop and turn.

We have to introduce a function coordinateDistance to give us the distance between the two coordinates. The function definition is shown below:

def coordinateDistance(x1, y1, x2, y2):
dx = x1 – x2
dy = y1 – y2
D = math.sqrt((dx * dx) + (dy * dy))
return D

To find the width and length, we use the expressions below:

width = coordinateDistance(120, 0, 40, 80)
length = coordinateDistance(0, 80, 80, 160)

The code for steps 4 and 5 is shown below:

turtle.pensize(width / 2)
turtle.pendown()

Since steps 6 to 17 will be repeated 3 more times, they are a good candidate for a function. We shall call this function drawTong.

Steps 6 to 17 can be automated using the drawTong function. We will first write out the commands for the steps to check then we will later integrate them into the drawTong function.

The code for steps 6 to 10 is given below:

turtle.forward(length)
turtle.right(90)
turtle.forward(length / 2)
turtle.left(90)
turtle.forward(length * 5 / 8)

The generated image is shown below:

The code to lift the pen is straightforward enough. To reverse the shape, we need to move backward the same number of steps as forward.

The code to do this is shown below:

turtle.penup()
turtle.backward(length * 5 / 8)
turtle.right(90)
turtle.pendown()
turtle.forward(length / 2)
turtle.right(90)
turtle.forward(length)

The generated image is shown below:

Now that we have drawn one part of the symbol, we can use the code to create the drawTong function so that we don’t have to repeat ourselves.

The code for the function is shown below:

def drawTong():
turtle.forward(length)
turtle.right(90)
turtle.forward(length / 2)
turtle.left(90)
turtle.forward(length * 5 / 8)
turtle.penup()
turtle.backward(length * 5 / 8)
turtle.right(90)
turtle.pendown()
turtle.forward(length / 2)
turtle.right(90)
turtle.forward(length)

To draw the shape completely, we need to call this function and alternate with the setheading angle that is representative of the quadrant the function will draw in. The code to do this is shown below:

drawTong()
drawTong()
drawTong()
drawTong()

The generated image is shown below:

## Complete Code

```"""
Project Name: Drawing Adinkra Symbols using Python
Developer Name: Truston Ailende
"""
import turtle
import math

# Square
def drawSquare(length):
turtle.penup()
turtle.setposition(-length/2.0, length/2.0)
turtle.pendown()
for i in range(0, 4):
turtle.forward(length)
turtle.right(90)
turtle.penup()
turtle.home()

# Horizontal lines
def drawHorizontalLine(length, division):
pixelSpace = int(length / division)
half = int(length / 2)
for j in range((-half + pixelSpace), half, pixelSpace):
turtle.penup()
turtle.setposition(-half, j)
turtle.pendown()
turtle.forward(length)
turtle.penup()
turtle.home()

# Vertical lines
def drawVerticalLine(length, division):
pixelSpace = int(length / division)
half = int(length / 2)
turtle.right(90)
for k in range((-half + pixelSpace), half, pixelSpace):
turtle.penup()
turtle.setposition(k, half)
turtle.pendown()
turtle.forward(length)
turtle.penup()
turtle.home()

# Draw the grid
drawSquare(400)
drawHorizontalLine(400, 40)
drawVerticalLine(400, 40)

# Change the colour mode
turtle.colormode(255)

# Change the pencolor to red
turtle.pencolor(255, 0, 0)

# Draw the horizontal centre line
turtle.setposition(-200, 0)
turtle.pendown()
turtle.forward(400)
turtle.penup()

# Draw the vertical centre line
turtle.setposition(0, 200)
turtle.pendown()
turtle.forward(400)

# Reset all the properties
turtle.home()
turtle.pencolor(0, 0, 0)

# Place code here
turtle.penup()
turtle.setposition(0, 80)

def coordinateDistance(x1, y1, x2, y2):
dx = x1 - x2
dy = y1 - y2
D = math.sqrt((dx * dx) + (dy * dy))
return D

width = coordinateDistance(120, 0, 40, 80)
length = coordinateDistance(0, 80, 80, 160)

turtle.pensize(width/2)
turtle.pendown()

def drawTong():
turtle.forward(length)
turtle.right(90)
turtle.forward(length / 2)
turtle.left(90)
turtle.forward(length * 5 / 8)
turtle.penup()
turtle.backward(length * 5 / 8)
turtle.right(90)
turtle.pendown()
turtle.forward(length / 2)
turtle.right(90)
turtle.forward(length)

drawTong()
drawTong()
drawTong()
drawTong()

# End the program
turtle.done()
```

Where Can It Be Found?

A brief Google search led me to the following places where you can get branded Aban products:

1. Aban Zanzibar Trinity Rings on Simbasante
3. Protection Adinkra Earrings by Ahima
4. Aban Gold Pendant on Amazon
5. Aban Wooden Stamp on Etsy

## Summary

At the end of this post, we have successfully used the Python Turtle environment to draw the Aban symbol.

The code for this series is available on GitHub. Please feel free to check it out.

Next time, we will look at the Abusua Pa Adinkra symbol

## Support this Series

You can support this series by buying one of them.

Categories

## Programming Languages

Computer programming languages allow us to give instructions to a computer in a language the computer understands.

The diagram above shows how programming languages hide details from the user.

At the base of the diagram, we have the computer hardware.

The hardware refers to the part of the computer that we can see and touch.

To control a computer, we need to use a machine language. Each computer has it’s own machine language and programmers found it hectic to have to learn because it was in binary.

As time when on, the Assembly Language was developed. Assembly Language provided a symbolic representation of the machine code needed to program a given CPU architecture.

The real breakthrough in computer programming would start with the arrival of high level languages.

High level languages were closer to English and in addition to making the task of computer programming easier, they also opened the field to a lot more people.

The top four from that period in computing history are C, BASIC, FORTRAN and COBOL.

Applications running this languages are still in use today.

We will be learning the Python programming language.

According to the TIOBE Index as at January 2020, the Python programming language is the 3rd most popular programming language in the world.

Each language has it’s strength and weakness but for absolute beginners, I will give my reasons why recommend learning the Python programming language first.

## Simplicity

When you are starting out on the journey of learning to code, you don’t want to deal with problems that occur while setting up your computer.

While learning Java at the University, one of the biggest issues we would run into was the setting of classpath.

The issue of classpath would stop many beginners dead in their tracks.

In Python, once you have installed the interpreter, you are ready to start programming.

In addition, the language is simple and readable. The commands in the language look like English.

## Versatility

Python is a general purpose language that caters to every use case that you can imagine.

It might not beat a specialized language in its domain but it will allow you get started in any domain.

## Large Community

The true secret weapon of the Python programming language is the community.

The versatility of the Python programming language is due to the libraries developed by the community.

## Conclusion

As technology become more integrated with everyday life, learning how to program will become important in being a member of the society.

For absolute beginners, the Python programming language is great for starting because it is simple and easy to use.

## Learn Python in One Week

If you want a quick and easy introduction to the Python programming language, you should check out my fifth book: Learn Python in One Week on the Amazon store.

Categories

## Turn by Turn Nigeria Ltd

“There are no privileges without duties, no authority without responsibilities, and no responsibilities without burdens”.

Quote by IM

This fact seems to be lost on the President of Nigeria as he would travel out of the country in the same week where the National Grid collapsed.

## Joshua Meets Buhari in London

World Heavyweight Champion Anthony Joshua would betray the teeming youth population that were his supporters by seeing the President in London.

Being Yoruba, he went ahead to prostrate for the President betraying his fellow youths in Nigeria.

Next time he fights, don’t expect me to support him.

## Boko Haram Executes another batch of Christian Youths

I am tired of writing about Boko Haram.

Sadly after 10 years of this problem, we have reached a point of apathy.

Now we are no longer saddened by the deaths. If we still care, we simple ask: How many died?

## Tarkwa Bay Eviction

It would be the turn of the people of Tarkwa Bay to lose their land to the Government.

The logic behind this move leaves a bitter taste in the mouth.

With the allure of ocean front property, it was just a matter of time before the Government took this route.

Sadly, beyond land grabbing, there is no development plan for the ocean front in Lagos.

The water is polluted and smells of shit.

## Berlin Conference 2020

Last week, Berlin Conference 2.0 held.

Like the last one, African nations were also missing from a discussion that would affect the security and economy of their respective nations.

Africans were not privy to the discussions of this one.

I believe that the Libyan cake was shared generously.

This conference proves that Africans are really good at championing causes that have no impact on their future.

## Ansaru Militant Group is Back

After a brief hiatus, the Ansaru Militant made a comeback.

Seriously, in a nation where terrorists can be rehabilitated and integrated into the army, why miss out on the fun.

## What Are the Top 4 Mobile Money Purchases by African Youth?

It is one thing for your government not to have a plan for you.

It is another for you not to have a plan for yourself.

This report shows the top spending by Africans on mobile money platforms.

It was no surprise that gambling was high on the list.

With the focus on getting rich quick rather than value creation, it is safe to say that Africa doesn’t have a future.

Why do you need to plan when there is a foreign organisation to take care of you.

It’s not like we even own our continent.

## Market Fire

Proving that we learn nothing from the past, we had another market fire last week.

When you live in a nation of the most prayerful people on earth, why do you need to plan for the future.

Your God will take care of you.

I have no more tears left because we will still be back year later in the year.

## Peter Needs a Lifeline

If all I have said is too literal in this digest, please read something more technical.

## How My Father Died

Uncle Victor Asemota talks about the death of this father in this post.

Let’s be honest with ourselves living in Nigeria is an extreme sports.

## All the money in the world couldn’t make Kinect happen

The Microsoft Kinect was one of the product failures of the last decade.

This post reminds us of that moment in time and what it means to be on the cutting edge of technology.

Meet 13 Year Old Nigerian Teenager Who Makes Electronics From Plastic Scraps | Lucky Ekhator

Categories

## Let the End Come

Let the end come
There are no safe places left
Nor powers to protect the innocent
Let the end come
If that at the last is inevitable
Let the end come
And bring and end to the tyranny of hope