Python Programming

Why We Program

A computer is a machine that processes information under the control of a program.

By seeing the computer as a machine, you can then come to appreciate it like any device around you.

What however makes the computer special is the fact that you can program it.

What is Programming?

Computer programming is a way of giving computers instructions about what they should do in order to complete a set task.

A computer program will have the ability to take input data from a device such as a keyboard, process calculations, and make decisions based on certain conditions.

The practice of programming is one of teaching the computer to do something.

You must know how to do it yourself before you can teach a computer to do it for you.

Programming Languages

The instructions to execute the task that you want the computer to do for your are given to it in a programming language.

A programming language is a language that the computer understands.

Using a programming language, you are then able to transfer the logic of how you solved a problem to the computer.

To learn a programming language, you should be able to do the following with it:

  1. Take inputs
  2. Produce outputs
  3. Declare variables
  4. Use mathematical expressions
  5. Use conditional statements such as IF/ELSE
  6. Using looping statements such as WHILE
  7. Write functions

The Purpose of Programming

The purpose of programming is to automate processes.

When we have a problem that we want to solve, we list out the steps to solve that problem.

The sequence of steps we create is the algorithm.

The algorithm embodies all the logic we need to solve a problem.

With a well designed algorithm, we are confident that if we follow the steps of the algorithm, the result will always be correct.

We then take this algorithm and express it in a programming language as a program.

Once we have the program, the computer will handle the task for us.

We can then free up the time for our task until something goes wrong or we need to update the program’s logic.

This is the essence of programming.


Programming is a task that deals with the automation of the solution to a problem.

It is difficult hence the need to understand why it is needed before you do it.

Learn Python in One Week

If you want a quick and easy introduction to the Python programming language, you should check out my fifth book: Learn Python in One Week on the Amazon store.

Drawing Adinkra Symbols using Python

Drawing Adinkra Symbols using Python – Introduction

I was privileged to live in Ghana for 15 months of my life. All around me I would see these symbols which I didn’t know what they meant and one day I would ask my Ghanaian friends their meaning.

What would follow would be an exposition into the heart of Ghanaian culture. Sadly, that culture is dying. This isn’t just true for Ghanaian culture but African culture in general.

The reason I believe is that at present, our culture contributes nothing meaningful to our lives. What’s the use of culture if you can’t feed yourself. Sadly, everywhere you look, Africans are at the bottom of the totem pole.

Yet, that culture is relevant to today’s realities. I am a graduate of Systems Engineering from the University of Lagos and I would say that my understanding of my culture was made more meaningful to me from my studies.

There are many forms of power in this world. The strongest of which is identity. When you know who you are, you will reject anything else and the world will either conform to you or eliminate you but while you live, you will dictate your terms.

I am an Esan man from Edo state in Nigeria. A descendant of the last men to surrender to the British in the Southern Protectorate that would later become Nigeria.

Knowing this, I expect myself to lead and on the hard days, I remind myself of who I am.

That is the strength an identity gives you. Why African culture doesn’t do the same is simply because we have never sought to truly understand it.

Most of what we call culture in Africa is dogma. Whenever you ask the practitioners the reasons for some cultural belief, there is no explanation other than: “It’s our culture”.

Such an approach repels most people who only see the rites but cannot connect to their meaning. Rather than acceptance, such an attitude breads contempt.

I only got to learn about the Adinkra symbols because the Ghanaians were open about it. If my friends had kept quiet, I would never have discovered the beauty, minimalism and symmetry of the Adinkra symbols.

This series “Drawing Adinkra Symbols using Python” will look at 40 Adinkra symbols and my attempt to draw them using the Python programming language. It is a rewrite of a series on my old blog.

I will be using Python 3. In the old blog, I created the code using Python 2. I intend to optimize the code as much as I can.

For a quick introduction to the Python programming language, please check out my fifth book: “Learn Python In One Week“.

I will be drawing 40 symbols in all. This symbols are the easiest to draw because they are made up of lines and circular curves.

Using Turtle Graphics

Before we can draw the symbols satisfactorily, we need to use a grid to analyse the symbols.

A grid will be drawn over the images of the symbols and we will be attempt to reproduce the image on our own grid.

The base images are 200 X 200 pixels. I will be drawing on a grid of 400 X 400 pixels.

The commands we will be using are:
1. import turtle
2. turtle.penup()
3. turtle.setposition(x coordinate, y coordinate)
4. turtle.pendown()
5. turtle.forward()
6. turtle.right(degree)
7. turtle.left(degree)

Please check out the Python documentation if you need to know the meaning of the commands.

The source file should be saved as because we will use this file to draw the other symbols.

The code is shown below:

Project Name: Drawing Adinkra Symbols using Python
Developer Name: Truston Ailende
Email Address:
import turtle
import math

# Square
def drawSquare(length):
    turtle.setposition(-length/2.0, length/2.0)
    for i in range(0, 4):

# Horizontal lines
def drawHorizontalLine(length, division):
    pixelSpace = int(length / division)
    half = int(length / 2)
    for j in range((-half + pixelSpace), half, pixelSpace):
        turtle.setposition(-half, j)

# Vertical lines
def drawVerticalLine(length, division):
    pixelSpace = int(length / division)
    half = int(length / 2)
    for k in range((-half + pixelSpace), half, pixelSpace):
        turtle.setposition(k, half)

# Draw the grid
drawHorizontalLine(400, 40)
drawVerticalLine(400, 40)

# Change the colour mode

# Change the pencolor to red
turtle.pencolor(255, 0, 0)

# Draw the horizontal centre line
turtle.setposition(-200, 0)

# Draw the vertical centre line
turtle.setposition(0, 200)

# Reset all the properties
turtle.pencolor(0, 0, 0)

# Place code here

# End the program

Check out the GitHub repository for all the code for this series.

The code shown above creates a grid of 400 X 400 pixels and resets the turtle to be at the origin of the window when the program finishes running.

The generated image is shown below:

Grid to Draw Adinkra Symbols

Where Can They Be Found?

Adinkra Symbols are ubiquitous in Ghana, a beautiful West African country on the Atlantic, situated between Cote d’Ivoire and Togo.

On cloth and walls, in pottery and logos, these Asante tribe symbols can be found everywhere.

I would first notice them in a church.


This post has introduced the series “Drawing Adinkra Symbols using Python” which has the aim to draw 40 Adinkra symbols using the Python programming language.

There are a large number of Adinkra symbols but 40 were chosen because the are the easiest to analyse and draw.

Each of the motifs that make up the corpus of Adinkra symbolism has a name and meaning derived either from a proverb, an historical event, human attitude, animal behaviour, plant life, forms and shapes of inanimate and man-made objects.

There are evocative messages in them that carry traditional wisdom. The beliefs, history, and philosophy of the Akan people is also represented by them.

They are still relevant because the corpus of symbols covers all aspects of life in terms of values and the collective knowledge of a people that has been handed over from antiquity.

Support this Series

Using the Adinkra symbols, I created the Adinkra Notebooks Collection.

You can support this series by buying one of them.